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Dissertation zugänglich unter
Viability assessment of jurisdictional Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) implementation in Vietnam
Machbarkeitsstudie zur rechtlichen Implementierung von REDD+
Neupane, Prem Raj
Dokument 1.pdf (7.104 KB)
REDD , Forstwirtschaft , Vietnam , Kohlenstoff , Landnutzung , Waldinventur
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch):
REDD , Forestry , Vietnam , Carbon , Land use , Forest inventory
Natürliche Ressourcen, Energie und Umwelt
Köhl, Michael (Prof. Dr.)
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
Kurzfassung auf Englisch:
International climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) conceive a nationwide approach of performance evaluation and national-level carbon accounting for REDD+. Decisions adopted in the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP16) to the UNFCCC in Cancún, 2010 acknowledged sub-national or jurisdictional approaches, as an interim measure, for REDD+ accounting and monitoring. A jurisdictional approach is the nation-wide approach under which a sub-national government implements and administers REDD+ program. The study focusses on Vietnam which is working on multiple phases of REDD+ and is taking action at multiple scales. The country is exploring nested approaches to integrate jurisdictional REDD+ activities into national REDD+ schemes. Jurisdictional REDD+ implementation (JRI) involves both state and non-state actors and opens the door for private-sector engagement in REDD+. For the JRI, the government needs to identify potential jurisdictions and decide upon priority areas. In addition, whether realistic jurisdictional REDD+ implementation is achievable from technical, operational, financial and policy perspective, needs to be analyzed before the decision for a specific jurisdiction is made. To inform such decision making, this study attempts to evaluate the viability of the jurisdictional REDD+ implementation in Dinh Hoa District, Vietnam. The study provides an understanding of JRI feasibility in a jurisdiction and suggests potential REDD+ activities in household-based forestry. The research examined the viability of the jurisdictional REDD+ implementation as a combination of technical, operational, financial and political aspects.
The study conducted ground-based forest inventories to estimate carbon stocks in forests. Forest cover change was assessed using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Based on findings of the forest inventories and forest cover change analysis, technically feasible REDD+ activities were identified. The study used household surveys to assess the perception and attitude of local households towards forest management, forest land allocation and REDD+. Outcomes of the assessments were used to evaluate operational feasibility and local acceptability of the JRI. Net present value (NPV) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) were used to measure financial viability of natural forests and planted forest management. A rigorous desk review of national legal and regulatory frameworks and institutional arrangements for REDD+ implementation was conducted to explore whether the frameworks are supportive for operationalizing jurisdictional REDD+.
From technical perspective, conservation of forest carbon stocks through protection of existing forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks- through restoration of degraded forest lands with assisted natural regeneration would be promising REDD+ activities for Protection forests and Special use forests. A recent trend of conversion of degraded natural forests to planted forests indicates sustainable management of forests through enrichment planting, and reducing emissions from deforestation through avoided planned deforestation might be further activities to be considered.
Benefit-cost ratio of greater than one and NPV of benefits of US$25 per ha per year revealed household-based natural forest management is economically feasible in Vietnam. The NPV indicates opportunity costs of forest conservation under REDD+ to the household. This implies that carbon markets under a REDD+ mechanism may entail high opportunity costs compared with the current carbon price in international market. JRI might be financially attractive to the households, if it provides incomes additional to the current income from the forest management under the HBFM.
Jurisdictional REDD+ implementation is politically acceptable and compliant with requirements of national legal and regulatory frameworks and UNFCCC REDD+ process. The Vietnamese multi-tiered and partially decentralized institutional arrangements for REDD+ implementation are highly supportive to a jurisdictional REDD+ approach. However, low level of knowledge and understanding about REDD+ among local stakeholders is an impediment for the JRI. Capacity of all state and non-state actors, particularly of ethnic minority groups, and forest-adjacent households needs to be strengthened.
The small-holders showed positive perception towards the household-based forest management regime and positive attitudes to forest land allocation and REDD+ initiatives. Positive perceptions and attitudes on conservation initiatives are good indicators for the sustainability of a REDD+ mechanism and indicate the likelihood that the local residents will continue to be involved in the implementation of the regime. Participation of local stakeholders is considered as building block for efficiency of REDD+ and its success which depends on its legitimacy. The substantive participation of the households and state-actors in the forest management regime encouraged an inclusive and informed decision-making process. Long-term land tenure, secured and explicit forest-use rights, mutually understood and respected roles and responsibilities, and accessible institutions and processes ensured traditional, legal and local legitimacy. Thus, jurisdictional REDD+ implementation is conceptually feasible and operational, provided that REDD+ activities are coherent to and embrace the concomitant policies, programs and practices. This is equally important for political adoption and local legitimacy of REDD+ at local level. The study suggested jurisdictional REDD+ implementation is technically feasible, operationally achievable, financially viable, and politically acceptable.