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Abnormal behavior of parkinsonian rats and genetic changes following high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
Abnormales Verhalten eines Morbus Parkinson Rattenmodells und genetische Änderungen nach Hochfrequenzstimulation des Nucleus subthalamicus
Grieb, Benjamin Max
(2014) Front Syst Neurosci, DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00095; PLoS ONE, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091663
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Parkinson-Krankheit , Ratte <Gattung> , Nucleus subthalamicus , Hirnstimulation , Differentielle Genexpression , Verhaltenstest
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch):
Experimental parkinsonism , 6-OHDA rat model , STN , DBS , locomotion
Hamel, Wolfgang (PD Dr.)
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
Kurzfassung auf Englisch:
Part A: Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson´s disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 hours of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a ‘first’ and ‘second gear’ of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analogue of Parkinson´s disease.
Part B: High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) is widely used as therapeutic intervention in patients suffering from advanced Parkinson’s disease. STN-HFS exerts a powerful modulatory effect on cortical motor control by orthodromic modulation of basal ganglia outflow and via antidromic activation of corticofugal fibers. However, STN-HFS-induced changes of the sensorimotor cortex are hitherto unexplored. To address this question at a genomic level, we performed mRNA expression analyses using Affymetrix microarray gene chips and real-time RT-PCR in sensorimotor cortex of parkinsonian and control rats following STN-HFS. Experimental parkinsonism was induced in Brown Norway rats by bilateral nigral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine and was assessed histologically, behaviorally, and electrophysiologically. We applied prolonged (23h) unilateral STN-HFS in awake and freely moving animals, with the non-stimulated hemisphere serving as an internal control for gene expression analyses. Gene enrichment analysis revealed strongest regulation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) related genes. STN-HFS led to a cortical downregulation of several MHC class II (RT1-Da, Db1, Ba, and Cd74) and MHC class I (RT1CE) encoding genes. The same set of genes showed increased expression levels in a comparison addressing the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Hence, our data suggest the possible association of altered microglial activity and synaptic transmission by STN-HFS within the sensorimotor cortex of 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats.