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Dissertation zugänglich unter
URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-82210
URL: http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2016/8221/


The morphology and evolution of adult head structures in Trichoptera (Insecta)

Die Morphologie und Evolution von Kopfstrukturen erwachsener Köcherfliegen (Insecta, Trichoptera)

Kubiak, Martin

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SWD-Schlagwörter: Morphologie , Phylogenie , Insekten , Gliederfüßer , Köcherfliegen , Muskulatur
Basisklassifikation: 42.62
Institut: Biologie
DDC-Sachgruppe: Biowissenschaften, Biologie
Dokumentart: Dissertation
Hauptberichter: Dobler, Susanne (Prof. Dr.)
Sprache: Englisch
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 18.11.2016
Erstellungsjahr: 2016
Publikationsdatum: 30.11.2016
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: Adult head structures of 22 caddisfly representatives covering all major trichopteran lineages were examined by using a combination of morphological techniques as histology,light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and micro-computed tomography in combination with computer-based 3D-reconstruction. In the first part of this dissertation, internal and external cephalic features of the annulipalpian representative Philopotamus ludificatus McLachlan, 1878 were described and illustrated. Based on this description, comparative anatomical investigations on the other representatives were carried out leading to the largest set of morphological data for adult head structures within Trichoptera. This allowed for the first time to evaluate the homology of several sclerites and muscles, which were discussed over decades, but without final decision due to the lack of reliable information. The widely fused and inseparable sclerites of maxilla and labium led to different homology hypotheses. Further, intensively discussed are the identity of the maxillary endite lobes (galea or lacinia), the composition of the maxillary sclerites and the origin of the haustellum. The descriptions presented here allow for a thorough evaluation of these structures and a critical discussion of their complex identity. Subsequently, a list of adult and pupal head structures is presented and analyzed cladistically. The data set is mapped on eight major phylogeny hypotheses published during the last decades. The parsimony analysis of adult and pupal head features best supports the paraphyly of the spicipalpian lineages. Precisely, the spicipalpian families are closely related to Integripalpia, together forming the sister group of Annulipalpia. The monophyly of both, Annulipalpia and Integripalpia is well supported by the present data set. A series of new potential apomophies was identified. Within Annulipalpia, Psychomyioidea (Psychomyiidae + Polycentropodidae) is supported by the unique origin of parts of the dorsal cibarial dilator muscle from the gena. A sister group relationship of Hydropsychidae + Psychomyioidea is also well supported (Musculus tentorio-scapalis medialis composed of two bundles; pupal mandible equipped with four subapical teeth). In contrast, the monophyly of Philopotamoidea (Philopotamidae + Stenopsychidae) is very weakly supported by adult and pupal head features. Within Integripalpia, the present data set shows strong support for the monophyly of Plenitentoria and Brevitentoria, for which several new apomorphies were obtained. Sericostomatoidea and Leptoceroidea, subordinate taxa within the brevitentorian clade, are not supported herein. Within Plenitentoria the monophyly of Limnephiloidea (Brachycentridae + Goeridae + Limnephilidae) is strongly supported by several very unique characters of the adult head (M. clypeo-epipharyngalis lateralis composed of two bundles, M. clypeo-cibarialis dorsalis composed of three bundles). The monophyly of Phryganeoidea is only weakly supported by homoplasious characters. Among the spicipalpian lineages the frequently discussed Hydroptiloidea comprising Ptilocolepidae + Hydroptilidae is not supported by the present data set. The monophyly of Glossosomatidae (Glossosomatinae + Agapetinae) (absence of M. tentorio-scapalis medialis), Rhyacophilidae (labium equipped with small endite lobes), and Hydrobiosidae (Hydrobiosinae + Apsilochoreminae) (antennifer small and positioned at the ventrolateral edge of the circumantennal margin) are well-supported by adult and pupal head features. The ground plan conditions of the adult and pupal head in Trichoptera and Amphiesmenoptera are reconstructed for several characters. The trichopteran ground plan contains a Π-shaped tentorium with short dorsal tentorial arms, moderately sized mandibles equipped with three well-developed muscles, a small but distinct lacinia, five-segmented maxillary palps, a small haustellum. Additionally, the unusual configuration of the extrinsic dilator muscles of the salivarium is regarded as a potential autapomorphy of Trichoptera. Adult head structures observed in the Philopotamidae show a remarkable number of presumably plesiomorphic features, moderately developed and sclerotized, but functionless mandibles, a small protrusible haustellum without channels on its surface, extrinsic antennal muscles originating exclusively from the tentorium, a small lacinia closely associated with the mainly membranous galea, extrinsic dorsal muscles of the salivarium originating from the hypopharynx and from the premental sclerite, respectively, and small labial endite lobes. Although, the comprehensive morphological data set of adult and pupal head structures allows for a evaluation of cephalic ground plan features in Trichoptera, its impact to address major questions in the higher level phylogeny in Trichoptera is limited.

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