Titel: A Reexamination of Design- and Policy-oriented Computer Ethics: Accounting for Increasingly Complex Actor Constellations and Regulatory Developments
Sprache: Englisch
Autor*in: Jacobs, Mattis
Schlagwörter: Computer Ethics; Value Sensitive Design; Blockchain; Platform Ecosystems; Artificial Intelligence
GND-Schlagwörter: Angewandte EthikGND
Künstliche IntelligenzGND
Erscheinungsdatum: 2023
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 2023-07-11
As computer systems become more pervasive in society, computer ethics gains importance. Yet, various approaches to computer ethics face challenges due to 1) increasingly complex actor constellations in many socio-technical systems, which involve a high degree of distributed agency and power, and 2) recent regulatory developments. This thesis reexamines computer ethics in light of these challenges. The focus is on two approaches to computer ethics: first, design-oriented computer ethics, dealing with the design of computer technology itself (i.e., separate from the behavior of the developers and users); secondly, policy-oriented computer ethics, which aims at formulating and justifying policies (i.e., practices, principles, laws, and rules) for the ethical use of computer technology.
This thesis addresses two main research questions: First, what challenges to the application of different approaches to computer ethics might arise from the social, legal, and technical environment in which computer technology is embedded? Secondly, how can the social, legal, and technical environment be shaped in such a way that approaches to computer ethics can be applied effectively? The thesis develops a perspective on computer ethics that considers shaping the conditions under which approaches to computer ethics can be successfully applied as an additional task of the discipline.
Furthermore, the thesis provides tangible guidance for addressing challenges to policy- and design-oriented approaches to computer ethics and outlines novel opportunities for them. It shows that computer ethics can be used to shape how power manifests among the actors involved in socio-technical systems. In doing so, computer ethics can enable specific actors to apply its approaches more effectively in the future. Moreover, the thesis emphasizes the importance of considering differences in the ability to influence design decisions (even against resistance) among the actors involved in a socio-technical system. Such considerations make it possible to identify powerful individual actors. These can be encouraged (or forced) to shape the socio-technical system in accordance with specific ethical values or principles.
The thesis was written cumulatively and consists of four peer-reviewed research articles. It is based primarily on a critical review and discussion of scholarly literature in philosophy, computer science, and related disciplines. It explores the research questions using examples of blockchain-based systems, platform ecosystems, and artificial intelligence systems. The thesis builds on approaches such as Value Sensitive Design and Disclosive Computer Ethics. Furthermore, it is guided by a perspective on computer ethics developed by James Moor in his seminal article What is computer ethics?, which places particular emphasis on the role of computer ethics in filling conceptual and policy vacuums.
URL: https://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/handle/ediss/10366
URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-ediss-110600
Dokumenttyp: Dissertation
Betreuer*in: Simon, Judith
Enthalten in den Sammlungen:Elektronische Dissertationen und Habilitationen

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