|Titel:||Personality in Adolescence: School as a Developmental Context||Sonstige Titel:||Persönlichkeit in der Adoleszenz: Schule als Entwicklungskontext||Sprache:||Englisch||Autor*in:||Israel, Anne||Schlagwörter:||Längsschnittforschung; Schulerfahrungen; Beurteilerunterschiede; soziale Beziehungen; psychosoziale Anpassung||GND-Schlagwörter:||Persönlichkeitspsychologie; Jugend; Persönlichkeitsentwicklung; Schule; Schulleistung; Wohlbefinden||Erscheinungsdatum:||2021||Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:||2021-06-15||Zusammenfassung:||
There is hardly another period in life that poses more puzzles to personality psychology than adolescence, covering the age span between 10 and 19 years. Adolescents’ personalities show the lowest stabilities besides childhood as well as unspecific dips and increases in mean-level trends. Moreover, this period in life is characterized by a diverse set of changes and developmental tasks in different areas. Adolescents need to develop a coherent self-view and identity, lay a basis of achievement for later career possibilities, build up positive relationships, and, thus, fulfil new social roles while maintaining their mental and physical well-being.
Whereas personality was already identified as a strong resource (or risk factor) for many life outcomes in adulthood, less is known about antecedents and consequences of personality development in adolescence. Thus, the present dissertation aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the cross-sectional and longitudinal interplay of adolescents’ personality and mastering developmental tasks in the context of school. By integrating theories from personality, developmental, and educational psychology I laid the theoretical foundation for deriving my research question. Considering theoretical and empirical findings emphasized the need of including different adolescent age groups during adolescence, a multi-rater approach of personality, and a variety of developmental tasks. In doing so, this thesis focused on the context of school, where adolescents spend the vast majority of their time and where most of these tasks have to be accomplished.
All three studies focus on a general understanding of the interplay between personality and different development tasks in school. To create a solid basis, study 1 provides a crosssectional overview about age- and rater-differentiated associations between the Big Five personality traits and a set of school-related psychosocial aspects in three main developmental task domains: achievement, social relationships, and psychosocial adjustment. Study 2 contributes to a better understanding of the longitudinal interplay between adolescents’ personality and four different achievement indicators from seventh to ninth grade. Additionally, family cohesion was included to test its predictive power on personality and achievement change. The research aim of study 3 is to gain a deeper understanding of antecedents and consequences of personality development by including all three developmental task domains. It investigates the joint development of the Big Five and indicators from achievement, social relationships, and psychosocial adjustment across several measurement points from early to middle adolescence. To address these questions, I analysed three different cross-sectional and longitudinal educational large-scale panel data sets. The three studies include all Big Five personality factors, focus on key developmental tasks, consider the topic from different rater perspectives, and concentrate on the underrepresented first half of adolescence.
The results underscore personality as a crucial factor for successful school experiences. Adolescents’ thinking, feeling, and behaviour (i.e. their personality) relate to their academic achievement, social relationships, and psychosocial adjustment in school, both crosssectionally and longitudinally. Whereas conscientiousness appears as general resource for all of the three school-related experience domains, extraversion showed age-, rater-, and outcomespecific results. The longitudinal interplay indicates a joint change of personality and school experiences showing the relevance of the educational context of school for development. Psychosocial adjustment is the developmental task domain that explains most personality changes across different traits. The relevance of adjustment and self-regulatory capacities as foundation for further positive developmental trajectories call for interventions that foster adolescents’ well-being. Overall, the current dissertation makes three contributions to the literature. First, it integrates insights from different research fields to theoretically enrich approaches for personality development in adolescence. Second, in concert, studies 1 to 3 provide novel insights into the specific interplay between adolescent personality and developmental tasks. These findings emphasize an adolescent’s personality as strongly interwoven with how they master developmental tasks. Third, this thesis highlights the significant role of the school context and draws attention to its potential for supporting positive development in adolescence. Future research needs to further disentangle the co-development of personality and school experiences by including biological processes, closer time intervals and micro-level processes, personality facets and items, and multimethodological approaches. This way, one can do justice to the complexity of simultaneous developmental processes in adolescence.
|Enthalten in den Sammlungen:||Elektronische Dissertationen und Habilitationen|
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geprüft am 01.08.2021
geprüft am 01.08.2021